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Table 3 Characteristics of the participants by reported income loss and factors associated with having lost income

From: Double jeopardy from the COVID-19 pandemic: risk of exposure and income loss in Portugal

  Total
(n = 6477)
Having lost income due to the pandemic   Income loss
Yes
n (%)
No
n (%)
p-value Crude
OR (CI 95%)
p-value Adjusted
OR (CI 95%)
p-value
Total   2776 (42.9) 3701 (57.1)      
Sex (n = 6471)
 Women 4482 (69.3) 1936 (69.7) 2546 (68.9) 0.470 1.04 (0.94-1.16) 0.470 0.92 (0.81-1.05) 0.202
 Men 1989 (30.7) 840 (30.3) 1149 (31.1)   1   1  
Age (n = 6477)
 16-25 1484 (22.9) 800 (28.8) 684 (18.5) < 0.001 2.61 (2.26-3.01) < 0.001 1.74 (1.45-2.09) < 0.001
 26-45 3168 (48.9) 1411 (50.8) 1757 (47.5)   1.79 (1.59-2.02) < 0.001 1.62 (1.40-1.87) < 0.001
  > 45 1825 (28.2) 565 (20.4) 1260 (34.0)   1   1  
Education level (n = 6442)         
 Basic/Secondary education 2774 (43.1) 1432 (51.8) 1342 (36.5) < 0.001 1.87 (1.69-2.07) < 0.001 1.36 (1.19-1.56) < 0.001
 Higher education 3668 (56.9) 1331 (48.2) 2337 (63.5)   1   1  
Monthly household income (n = 5914)
  < 650€ 858 (13.5) 548 (21.7) 310 (9.1) < 0.001 4.65 (3.83-5.64) < 0.001 3.13 (2.47-3.96) < 0.001
 651-1000€ 1308 (22.1) 681 (26.9) 627 (18.5)   2.85 (2.40-3.39) < 0.001 2.16 (1.76-2.65) < 0.001
 1001-1500€ 1210 (20.5) 502 (19.9) 708 (20.9)   1.86 (1.56-2.22) < 0.001 1.57 (1.29-1.91) < 0.001
 1501-2000€ 876 (14.8) 321 (12.7) 555 (16.4)   1.52 (1.25-1.84) < 0.001 1.34 (1.09-1.65) 0.006
 2001-2500€ 610 (10.3) 184 (7.3) 426 (12.6)   1.13 (0.91-1.41) 0.258 1.11 (0.88-1.41) 0.365
  > 2500€ 1052 (17.8) 290 (11.5) 762 (22.5)   1   1  
Employment status (n = 6477)
 Employee 5461 (84.3) 2016 (72.6) 3445 (93.1) < 0.001 1   1  
 Self-employed 1016 (15.7) 760 (27.4) 256 (6.9)   5.07 (4.36-5.90) < 0.001 5.96 (5.01-7.08) < 0.001
Frequency of feeling agitated, anxious or sad (n = 6445)
 Every day/almost all days 1462 (22.7) 762 (27.6) 700 (19.0) < 0.001 2.52 (2.13-2.98) < 0.001 2.02 (1.66-2.46) < 0.001
 Some days 3969 (61.6) 1694 (61.3) 2275 (61.8)   1.72 (1.49-2.00) < 0.001 1.70 (1.43-2.02) < 0.001
 Never 1014 (15.7) 306 (11.1) 708 (19.2)   1   1