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Table 2 Characteristics of the participants by work arrangements and factors associated with working in the workplace

From: Double jeopardy from the COVID-19 pandemic: risk of exposure and income loss in Portugal

  Work arrangements   Working in the workplace
  Working in the workplace
n (%)
Teleworking
n (%)
p-value Crude
OR (CI 95%)
p-value Adjusted
OR (CI 95%)
p-value
Total 32,990 (34.8) 61,872 (65.2)      
Sex (n = 94,803)
 Women 19,246 (58.4) 40,281 (65.1) < 0.001 1   1  
 Men 13,722 (41.6) 21,554 (34.9)   1.33 (1.30-1.37) < 0.001 1.20 (1.16-1.24) < 0.001
Age (n = 94,862)
 16-25 1790 (5.4) 1937 (3.1) < 0.001 1.96 (1.83-2.10) < 0.001 1.73 (1.58-1.88) < 0.001
 26-45 18,586 (56.4) 33,181 (53.6)   1.19 (1.16-1.22) < 0.001 1.16 (1.12-1.20) < 0.001
  > 45 12,614 (38.2) 26,754 (43.3)   1   1  
Education level (n = 94,666)
 Basic/Secondary education 12,967 (39.4) 9245 (15.0) < 0.001 3.69 (3.58-3.81) < 0.001 3.17 (3.04-3.30) < 0.001
 Higher education 19,935 (60.6) 52,519 (85.0)   1   1  
Monthly household income (n = 87,185)
  < 650€ 1839 (6.0) 1034 (1.8) < 0.001 5.10 (4.70-5.54) < 0.001 2.93 (2.64-3.25) < 0.001
 651-1000€ 6212 (20.3) 6494 (11.5)   2.75 (2.62-2.88) < 0.001 1.80 (1.70-1.91) < 0.001
 1001-1500€ 7655 (25.0) 12,531 (22.1)   1.75 (1.68-1.83) < 0.001 1.38 (1.32-1.45) < 0.001
 1501-2000€ 5611 (18.4) 11,720 (20.7)   1.37 (1.31-1.44) < 0.001 1.18 (1.12-1.24) < 0.001
 2001-2500€ 4062 (13.3) 9961 (17.6)   1.17 (1.11-1.23) < 0.001 1.11 (1.05-1.17) < 0.001
  > 2500€ 5186 (17.0) 14,880 (26.3)   1   1  
Employment status (n = 94,862)
 Employee 29,137 (88.3) 53,277 (86.1) < 0.001 1.22 (1.17-1.27) < 0.001 1.09 (1.04-1.15) < 0.001
 Self-employed 3853 (11.7) 8595 (13.9)   1   1  
Frequency of feeling agitated, anxious or sad (n = 94,447)
 Every day/almost all days 9896 (30.2) 13,577 (22.0) < 0.001 1.54 (1.48-1.61) < 0.001 1.14 (1.09-1.20) < 0.001
 Some days 16,885 (51.6) 35,517 (57.6)   1.01 (0.97-1.04) 0.723 0.93 (0.89-0.97) 0.001
 Never 5958 (18.2) 12,614 (20.4)   1   1  
COVID-19 risk perception (n = 85,902)
 High risk 13,306 (43.6) 7195 (13.0) < 0.001 10.36 (9.91-10.83) < 0.001 11.06 (10.53-11.61) < 0.001
 Moderate risk 13,231 (43.3) 25,787 (46.6)   2.87 (2.76-2.99) < 0.001 3.06 (2.93-3.19) < 0.001
 Low/no risk 3996 (13.1) 22,387 (40.4)   1   1