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Table 6 Decomposition of spatial effect of the determinants on the health expenditure

From: Determinants of China’s health expenditure growth: based on Baumol’s cost disease theory

  THE GHE SHE OOP
  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)
Variables Direct effects Indirect effects Total effects Direct effects Indirect effects Total effects Direct effects Indirect effects Total effects Direct effects Indirect effects Total effects
dlnPOP65 0.0285 (0.0541) 0.103 (0.311) 0.131 (0.321) 0.123*** (0.0375) −0.0847 (0.243) 0.0380 (0.234) − 0.0377 (0.0700) 0.548 (0.380) 0.511 (0.390) 0.00694 (0.0935) −0.0171 (0.365) − 0.0101 (0.402)
dlnGDP 0.629* (0.349) 3.699*** (1.336) 4.327*** (1.300) 0.0444 (0.478) −1.742 (1.742) −1.698 (1.609) 0.834 (0.561) 6.508*** (1.906) 7.342*** (1.878) 0.496 (0.560) 3.492 (2.732) 3.988 (2.529)
BV 0.0296*** (0.00460) 0.0783*** (0.0299) 0.108*** (0.0314) 0.0223*** (0.00587) 0.00533 (0.0238) 0.0276 (0.0254) 0.0379*** (0.00797) 0.110*** (0.0399) 0.148*** (0.0413) 0.0241*** (0.00634) 0.0705* (0.0422) 0.0946** (0.0417)
dlnRD 0.164** (0.0653) 0.671 (0.414) 0.835* (0.446) 0.159* (0.0934) −0.0899 (0.384) 0.0687 (0.370) 0.223*** (0.0600) 0.920** (0.409) 1.143*** (0.423) 0.133 (0.0844) 0.479 (0.439) 0.611 (0.477)
dlnBED −0.00317 (0.0568) 0.548 (0.369) 0.545 (0.356) 0.163* (0.0890) 0.308 (0.249) 0.471* (0.281) −0.191* (0.111) −0.149 (0.398) − 0.340 (0.353) 0.130* (0.0738) 1.334** (0.547) 1.464*** (0.524)
dlnDOC −0.0150 (0.0297) −0.263 (0.173) −0.278* (0.157) − 0.0855*** (0.0196) −0.0539 (0.109) − 0.139 (0.112) 0.0273 (0.0548) − 0.117 (0.195) −0.0899 (0.167) 0.00544 (0.0523) −0.496** (0.240) − 0.491** (0.217)
dlnOUTP 0.135 (0.139) 1.488* (0.904) 1.623* (0.949) −0.262 (0.183) 0.858 (0.839) 0.595 (0.898) 0.341 (0.312) 1.142 (1.117) 1.483 (1.201) 0.406 (0.260) 2.808** (1.422) 3.215** (1.586)
dlnINP −0.0698 (0.189) −1.186 (0.877) −1.256 (0.810) −0.183 (0.150) − 0.772* (0.448) −0.955** (0.475) 0.309 (0.338) −0.702 (1.150) − 0.393 (0.990) −0.460* (0.252) −1.987* (1.179) −2.448** (1.054)
  1. Note: Columns 1–3 show growth in real health expenditure per capita, columns 4–6 show growth in real government health expenditure per capita, columns 7–9 show growth in real social health expenditure per capita, and columns 10–12 show growth in personal cash health expenditure per capita. Robust standard deviations are in parentheses, with ***, ** and * indicating significant at the 1, 5 and 10% levels respectively