- Open Access
Socioeconomic inequality in child injury in Bangladesh – implication for developing countries
© Giashuddin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
- Received: 23 August 2008
- Accepted: 23 March 2009
- Published: 23 March 2009
Child injury is an emerging public health issue in both developed and developing countries. It is the main cause of deaths and disabilities of children after infancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic inequality in injury related morbidity and mortality among 1–4 years children.
Materials and methods
Data used for this study derived from Bangladesh Health and Injury Survey. A multistage cluster sampling technique was conducted for this survey. In this study quintiles of socioeconomic status were calculated on the basis of assets and wealth score by using principle component analysis. The numerical measures of inequality in mortality and morbidity were assessed by the concentration index.
The poorest-richest quintile ratio of mortality due to injury was 6.0 whereas this ratio was 5.6 and 5.5 for the infectious diseases and non-communicable diseases. The values of mortality concentration indices for child mortality due to infection, non-communicable diseases and injury causes were -0.40, -0.32 and -0.26 respectively. Among the morbidity concentration indices, injury showed significantly greater inequality. All the concentration indices revealed that there were significant inequalities among the groups. The logistic regression analysis indicated that poor children were 2.8 times more likelihood to suffer from injury mortality than rich children, taking into account all the other factors.
Despite concentration indices used in this study, the analysis reflected the family's socioeconomic position in a Bangladesh context, showing a very strong statistical association with child mortality. Due to the existing socioeconomic situation in Bangladesh, the poor children were more vulnerable to injury occurrence.
- Child Mortality
- Concentration Index
- Verbal Autopsy
- Cumulative Proportion
- Child Injury
In recent decades overall child mortality rates have decreased globally. In Bangladesh, infant mortality declined by 25 percent from 87 deaths per 1,000 live births to 65 deaths per 1,000 live births between the periods 1989–2004. Child and under five mortality declined 52 and 34 percent respectively over the same period. In the last five years, child mortality declined only 20 percent . Various immunization and intervention programs played an important role in reducing the under five mortality. These programs are mainly focused on reducing infectious and non-communicable diseases. However, injury emerged as a leading cause of both morbidity and mortality for children. Studies from Bangladesh revealed that 21% deaths occurred among 1–4 year's children due to injury [1–3]. In infancy, the main causes of death were low birth weight, pneumonia and birth asphyxia, whereas after the infancy, the leading cause of child death is injury . It is now a public health issue in both the developed and developing world [4, 5]. The World Health Organization reported almost 6 million deaths due to injury . It is also a major cause of disabilities and deaths of children [7, 8]. The problems of road traffic accident, drowning, fall, and burn have been an unnoticed public health disaster. It is expected that injury will be the rival of communicable disease as a cause of ill health and death by the first decade of the new millennium . Non-fatal injuries are the frequent cause of hospital admission and disabilities center admissions, and half of the hospital surgical beds are occupied by injury patients . Within developing countries, poor people represented by pedestrians, passengers in buses and trucks, and cyclists suffer a higher burden of morbidity and mortality from traffic injuries . Data from several populations suggest that socioeconomic disparities are strong predictors of childhood mortality [12–16]. Low maternal education, young age, and increased number of children were strong predictors of injury mortality rate for children 0 to 4 years of age . Although the recent decline in child mortality in Bangladesh is remarkable, death from different causes other than infectious diseases and malnutrition remains an important component of child mortality. Child death due to injury especially drowning can be expected to be a problem in Bangladesh given the geographical features of the country . Rivers are the most important geographical features in Bangladesh. It's been known that the out flow of water from Bangladesh is the third highest in the world, after the Amazon and the Congo systems. The Padma, Jamuna and the lower Meghna are the widest rivers. Some rivers are known by different names in various portions of their course. Throughout the country there are bils, haors and lakes that meet the need of irrigating water. Bangladesh has a tropical monsoon-type climate, with a hot and rainy summer and a dry winter. Most rains occur during the monsoon (June – September) and little in winter (November – February). Bangladesh is subject to devastating cyclones, originating over the Bay of Bengal, in the periods of April to May and September to November. Often accompanied by surging waves, these storms can cause great damage and loss of life.
Globally, poorer countries bear a disproportionate burden of injury morbidity and mortality. Numerous studies have demonstrated that lower socioeconomic classes have higher death rates than upper socioeconomic classes, and this difference has increased in the past decades [1, 18, 19]. However, very few studies have focused on the equity in child injury mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate how the socioeconomic position associated with injury morbidity and mortality among 1–4 year-old children. Further, the aim was to explore what extent the risk factors could explain some of the socioeconomic inequity in injury mortality and injury morbidity of the children. We hypothesized mother's age, mother's education, number of living children, sex of child and household's income to represent different aspects of socioeconomic position and, therefore, to have an association with occurrence of injury mortality and injury morbidity.
The data used for this study was derived from Bangladesh Health and Injury Survey . The aim of the survey was to investigate information on the cause of death and serious morbidity and to observe the patterns, characteristics of injury and overall risk factors and hazards for childhood injuries. The survey also investigated environmental risks and hazards around households. This study was conducted in Bangladesh between January and December 2003. It was a large cross sectional survey across the country. A multistage cluster sampling technique was conducted for this survey.
Administratively, Bangladesh is divided into 6 divisions. These in turn consist of 64 districts, 12 of them randomly selected. In each district, one upazila (sub-district) was randomly selected. In each upazila, two rural unions (the smallest administrative unit) were randomly selected. A total of 24 unions were selected for this study. Each rural union had roughly 20,000 populations. The district headquarters of the 12 selected districts constituted the urban areas. In the urban areas, mohallas (smallest administrative unit in urban areas) served as cluster and systematic sampling was done to achieve the required number of households. A sample of 132,000 households from both rural and urban areas in Bangladesh was selected for collecting information.
In the survey, respondents were asked to provide a complete history of each individual, including age, sex and occurrence of death (if any) in the households during the preceding two years before the survey. Any illnesses of the household's members which occurred 6 months prior to the survey were also recorded. For those who died, age and sex details were recorded. Verbal autopsy was made to diagnose the causes of death and illness with a specified structured questionnaire. Two independent panels of pediatricians checked the collected autopsy forms to assign the exact cause of death. All the causes were classified into three broad categories such as infection (due to the entry and development or multiplication of an infectious agent in the body, for example ARI/Pneumonia, Diarrhoea etc), non-communicable disease (diseases not capable of being directly or indirectly transmitted from person to person, for example Malnutrition, Birth asphyxia, Asthma etc.) and injury (physical damage due to the transfer of energy. Injury occurs when the amount of energy transfer exceeded the host organism's threshold tolerance. The type of energy can be mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical, radiation or the absence of essentials such as oxygen or heat). To collect information on characteristics of injuries, separate forms were used for each mechanism of injury.
Analysis of the effects of socio-economic and demographic factors on child injury mortality and morbidity was based on the estimation of a primary model. The model examined the effects of maternal and other socio-demographic characteristics on the likelihood of the child being injured. In the analysis of the model, death or illness due to injury measured as dichotomous variable coded 1 if the injured prior to the date of interview and 0 otherwise. Logistic regression model used for the analysis. The coefficient in the analysis represented increase or decrease in the log odds of being occurrence of event (versus not occurrence) associated with a unit or category change in an independent variable.
Limitation and strength
It was a large sample study. To ensure the sufficient number of deaths, the recall period was two years in the survey, but deaths of one-year recall period were used for this study. Data collected using verbal autopsy or verbal diagnosis checklist, which might be some misclassification of causes of death determined by non-physician data collectors. Socioeconomic information was collected on the report of the respondent; so, there would be a possibility of underreporting of socioeconomic data. The analysis was mainly based on the proportion of occurring injury. Due to lack of sufficient information of the denominator, rate could not be measured. Asset score measured in this study was consistent with the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS). Values of some quintiles were 0 (Zero) for specific causes of injury, so the concentration index was not measured.
Percentage of household asset and economic characteristics by each quintile
Possession of television
Possession of radio/tape-recorder
Possession of motor-cycle
Land> = 50 decimal
Ownership of House
Inequality in specific cause of mortality and morbidity by quintile
The values of Concentration Index (CI) for child mortality for the infectious, non-communicable diseases and injury causes are -0.40, -0.32 and -0.26 respectively. All are significantly different from zero at conventional levels (the t-value are -5.0, -3.1 and -3.2 respectively). The absolute value of the CI of infectious disease 0.40 indicated there were higher degree inequalities in mortality. Similarly, among the morbidity concentration indices injury showed the significantly greater inequality.
The study found that pneumonia and diarrhoea were the top two leading causes of death of children between age 1 and 4. The study also found drowning was the third leading cause of childhood death. The mortality and morbidity inequality was highest for cause due to drowning (Table 2). The poor-rich ratios for drowning, diarrhoea and pneumonia was 7, 5 and 6 respectively. Concentration indices and its corresponding t-value reveal that there were significant inequalities among the income groups for these three leading cause of mortality. It is also found that cause of pneumonia had the greater degree of inequality.
Inequality in specific causes of injury morbidity
Multiple logistic regression model for risk of injury mortality and morbidity
Child age in year
> = 25 years
No of living children
This study investigated the inequality in mortality and morbidity for one to four year old children, especially by cause of injury, among socio-economic groups. In this study, quintiles were used to measure disparities in mortality by the economic status in terms of household's goods that were developed by World Bank . The concentration indices confirmed that injury related death was higher among the poor children as compared to rich children. The study found that inequalities also appeared in mortality due to infectious and non-communicable diseases. The children of poorest families suffered more in injury morbidity than the children of rich families. Income inequality was significantly visible in both leading causes of mortality and morbidity. Greater degree inequality exists in drowning related injuries among 1–4 year old children. The multivariate logistic regression analysis substantiated that female injury mortality was higher but the illness became lower than males. These might be the cause of gender discrimination. In most population, male mortality is higher than female mortality at almost all ages. In south Asia, however, female mortality is higher than male mortality at many ages especially during the childhood periods . Excess female mortality during childhood in Bangladesh and other south Asian countries is believed to result from son preference, which leads to differential treatment of sons and daughters in terms of foods allocation, prevention of disease and accidents, and treatment of illness . In south Asia different studies revealed the evidence of sons' preference and discrimination in caring for son and daughters and discrimination against girl children that leads to higher mortality rates [23, 24].
The association of injury mortality and maternal education were statistically significant in the bivariate analysis. Maternal education was not statistically associated with child mortality in multivariate analysis although it is known as the main determinant of child survival in developing countries [25–28]. However, controlling for the economic variables and place of mothers residence in the multivariate analysis removed the statistical significance. This may indicate that this relationship is mediated by those variables. In recent years, other studies have found weak correlation between maternal education and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa compared with results of other Third World regions [29, 30]. There have been suggestions that the weak relation between maternal education and child injury mortality may be related to weaker health infrastructure in South Asian countries may in some way inhibit the ability of more educated women to take advantage of their human capital in the health environment.
The results of this study revealed significant association between socioeconomic inequality and incidence of injuries among children after adjustment of other factors. The study also stated that wealth distribution affected almost similar pattern on child mortality due to infectious, non-communicable diseases and injury. This analysis demonstrated that after infancy age is an important mediator of the relationship between economic inequality and injury mortality and morbidity.
Under the target for Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4, Bangladesh is to reduce under-five mortality from 151 deaths per thousand live births in 1990 to 50 in 2015. Although there has been a decline among both infant and under five mortality, they are still considered to be very high compared to many developing countries. During the period 1991 to 2001, under-five mortality declined average 4.1 percent per year, which is below the required annual 4.3 percent, but from 1997 to 2001 the decline is only 1.6 percent per year . A large part of these infant deaths are contributed by pneumonia and diarrhoea among children. Due to decreased infant mortality, the under-five mortality had decreased but child mortality remained constant since 1997. However, the third leading cause of under-five mortality and first leading cause of child mortality is drowning [1, 20].
Findings from the other studies confirm that causes of injuries and the pattern of incidence by age and sex are more or less similar in developing countries and most of the injury incidence (i.e. cut, burn, falls, poisoning and drowning) of younger ages took places at the premises of home [31–33]. This study goes part of way towards highlighting the extent of ill health due to injury among poor children in developing countries. Based on the findings of this study, a direction of further research on inequity and child injury can be drawn.
Conclusion and policy implication
According to the results it is concluded that the children of poorest families suffered more in injury morbidity and mortality than the children of rich families. Due to existing socioeconomic situation in Bangladesh, the poor children were more vulnerable to injury occurrence. The percentage of injured was much higher in the poor group as compare to rich group. Injury causes an extra burden to the poorest family as it results more disabilities than infectious and non-communicable diseases. So, there is an urgent need to develop programs to prevent injuries in low-income countries like Bangladesh. It is also important to reduce child injury instantly specially among 1–4 years children to achieve MDG 4 by 2015. In the health sector existing program should be given priorities for injury prevention efforts as well as vulnerable group.
This research was a part of Bangladesh Health and Injury Survey, which was supported by Institute of Child and Mother Health (ICMH), Dhaka, Bangladesh, UNICEF-Bangladesh and The Alliance for Safe Children (TASC) Bangkok, Thailand. The Paper was also presented at "the IUSSP Seminar on Health Inequity: Current Knowledge and New Measurement Approaches, Cairo, Egypt, 16–18 February 2008, organized by the IUSSP Scientific Panel on Health Equity and Policy in the Arab World and the Social Research Center of the American University in Cairo, with financial support from the Wellcome Trust, the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the WHO East Mediterranean Regional Office (EMRO)." We thank the ICMH, UNICEF, TASC and IUSSP personnel for their support in the study.
- National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT), Mitra and Associates, ORC Macro: Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. 2005, Dhaka, Bangladesh and Calverton, Maryland: NIPORT, Mitra and Associates and ORC MacroGoogle Scholar
- Mock CN, Adzota E, Denno D: Admission for injury at a rural hospital in Ghana: implication for prevention in the developing world. Am J Publ Hlth. 1995, 85: 927-931. 10.2105/AJPH.85.7.927.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Baqui AH, Sabir AA, Begum N, Arifeen SE, Mitra SN, Black RE: Causes of childhood deaths in Bangladesh: an update. Acta Paediatr. 2001, 90 (6): 682-90. 10.1080/080352501750258775.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO): Global Medium Term Program 1990–95, Program 8.3. 1988, Geneva: Accident preventionGoogle Scholar
- Baker SP, O'Neill B, Ginsburg MJ, Li G: The Injury Fact Book. 1992, New York: Oxford University Press, 2Google Scholar
- Krug E, Sharma GK, Lozano R: The global burden of injuries. Am J Public Health. 2000, 90: 523-26. 10.2105/AJPH.90.4.523.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- US Department of Health and Human Services: Healthy Children 2000. 1992, Boston: Jones and Bartlett PublishersGoogle Scholar
- Guyer B, Elers B: The causes, impact, and preventability of childhood injuries in the United States: the magnitude of the problem an overview. Am J Dis Child. 1990, 144: 649-652.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murray CJ, Lopez AD: Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet. 1997, 349: 1436-42. 10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07495-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aditya SW: Trauma cases in a district hospital. Journal of Bangladesh orthop soc. 1989, 4: 34-40.Google Scholar
- Nuntulya VM, Reich MR: Equity dimensions of Road traffic injuries in Low and Middle income countries. Inj control Saf promot. 2003, 10 (1–2): 13-20. 10.1076/icsp.10.1.13.14116.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Scholer SJ, Mitchel EF, Ray WA: Predictors of injury mortality in early childhood. Pediatrics. 1997, 100: 342-347. 10.1542/peds.100.3.342.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wicklund K, Moss S, Frost F: Effects of maternal education, age, and parity on fatal infant accidents. Am J Public Health. 1984, 74: 1150-1152. 10.2105/AJPH.74.10.1150.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cummings P, Theis MK, Mueller BA, Rivara FP: Infant injury death in Washington State, 1981 through 1990. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1994, 148: 1021-1026.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Emerick SJ, Foster LR, Campbell DT: Risk factors for traumatic infant death in Oregon, 1973 to 1982. Pediatrics. 1986, 77: 518-522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Scholer SJ, Hickson GB, Mitchel EF, Ray WA: Persistently increased injury mortality rates in high-risk young children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997, 151: 1216-1219.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ahmed MK, Rahman M, van Ginneken J: Epidemiology of child deaths due to drowning in Matlab. International Journal of Epidemiology. 1999, 28: 306-311. 10.1093/ije/28.2.306.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wagstaff A: Poverty and health sector inequality. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2002, 80 (2): 97-105.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gwatkin DR, Ruston S, Johnson K, Paned RP, Wagstaff A: Socioeconomic differences in health, nutrition and population in Bangladesh. 2000, Washington DC: The World BankGoogle Scholar
- Director General of Health Services, Institute of Child and Mother Health, United Nations Children's Fund, The Alliance for Safe Children: Bangladesh Health and Injury Survey: Report on Children. 2003, Dhaka: Bangladesh Health and Injury SurveyGoogle Scholar
- Ghosh S: The female child in India: A struggle for survival. Bulletin of the nutrition foundation of India. 1987, 8 (4):Google Scholar
- United Nations: Too young to die: Genes or Gender?. 1998, New York: United NationsGoogle Scholar
- Basuri AM: Is discrimination in food really necessary for explaining sex differentials in childhood mortality?. Population studies. 1989, 43 (2): 193-210. 10.1080/0032472031000144086.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vepa SS: Gender equity & human development. Indian J Med Res. 2007, 126 (4): 328-40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sullivan JM, Rutstein SO, Bicego GT: Infant and child mortality. DHS comparative studies. 1994, Calverton, MD: Macro InternationalGoogle Scholar
- Bicego GT, Boerma JT: Maternal education and child survival: A comparative study of survey data from 17 countries. Social Science & Medicine. 1993, 36: 1207-1229. 10.1016/0277-9536(93)90241-U.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Caldwell JC: Education as a factor in mortality decline: An examination of Nigerian data. Population Studies. 1979, 36: 395-413. 10.2307/2173888.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gosse RN, Aufey C: Literacy and health status in developing countries. Annual Review of Public Health. 1989, 10: 281-297. 10.1146/annurev.pu.10.050189.001433.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hobcraft JM, McDonald JW, Rustein SO: Socioeconomic factors and child mortality: A cross-national comparison. Population Studies. 1984, 38: 193-223. 10.2307/2174073.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Folasade B: Environmental factors, situation of women and child mortality in South Western Nigeria. Social Science & Medicine. 2000, 51: 1473-1489. 10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00047-2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rahman F, Ali Y, Andersson R, SvanstrOm L: Epidemiology of injury: Results from injury registration at a district level hospital in Bangladesh – implications for prevention in low-income countries. Injury Control and Safety Promotion. 2001, 8: 29-26. 10.1076/icsp.126.96.36.19967.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bangdiwala SI, Anzola-Pérez E: The incidence of injuries in young people: II. Log-linear multivariable models for risk factors in a collaborative study in Brazil, Chile, Cuba and Venezuela. Int J Epidemiol. 1990, 19: 125-32. 10.1093/ije/19.1.125.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fife D, Barancik JI, Chatterjee BF: Northeastern Ohio Trauma Study: II. Injury rates by age, sex, and cause. Am J Public Health. 1984, 74: 473-8. 10.2105/AJPH.74.5.473.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.